Just a barrell/sprint swap ... no. The case is a different size (.40 versus .45 diameter) and subsequently the slides have different breechface sizes.
However, if your pockets are deep enough, you could have a smith make you two slides - one a .45 and one a 10mm - that would both be fit to the same frame. This would allow you to run .357Sig, .40S&W, 10mm, .45ACP, .45Super, .45GAP, and 460 Rowland out of two slides and 6 different barrels.
Seriously, two slides would get you 10mm and .45ACP .... a second barrel for the first slide will also get you cheapo .40S&W which, I must say, is a very nice cartridge in a 1911.